A Good Comrade

Author: Roger Gough
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857712985
Size: 13.78 MB
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A Good Comrade. Traitor and reformer, persecutor and victim - Janos Kádár, Hungary’s Communist leader from 1956 to 1988, had one of the most dramatic and influential political careers of the twentieth century. From poverty to power and then from prison back to power, Kádár played a leading role in both the rise and the ultimate collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe._x000D_ _x000D_ In the first English biography of Kádár since his death, Roger Gough analyses the scope and limits of reform in Kádár ’s Hungary, showing how the failure of his policies contributed to the collapse of European communism. Gough leads the reader through the world of underground political activism, the turbulent days of revolution and Stalinist Hungary, deftly illuminating the man at the centre of the storm._x000D_ _x000D_ After siding with the Soviet Union and overseeing the brutal suppression of his country’s uprising, Kádár transformed his position to win domestic and international respect through political concessions, attempts at economic reform and a gradual opening to the West. But when the prosperity of ‘goulash communism’ proved illusory and foreign debt mounted, Kádár was ousted – ending his political career haunted by the long-suppressed crimes of his past._x000D_ _x000D_ Half a century after Kádár ’s betrayal of the 1956 uprising captured the world’s attention, Gough paints a vivid portrait of the withdrawn, austere and tenacious man who dominated Hungarian political life for three decades. Reminiscent of a Shakespearean tragedy, this is the dramatic story of an ambiguous yet powerful personality who left his mark not just on Hungary but also on Europe and the international history of Communism.

The First Domino

Author: Johanna Cushing Granville
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585442980
Size: 19.51 MB
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The First Domino. http://www.johannagranville.com A Fascinating Analysis Based on Newly Declassified Documents from the Former USSR and Communist Bloc On October 23-24 and November 3-4, 1956, the Soviet Union invaded Hungary to reassert strict communist rule. The First Domino: International Decision Making during the Hungarian Crisis of 1956 is the first analytical monograph in English drawing on new archival collections from East bloc countries to reinterpret decision making during this Cold War crisis. Johanna Granville selects four key patterns of misperception as laid out by Columbia University political scientist Robert Jervis and shows how these patterns prevailed in the military crackdown and in other countries' reactions to it. Granville perceptively examines the statements and actions of Soviet Presidium members, the Hungarian leadership, U.S. policy makers, and even Yugoslav and Polish leaders. According to Granville, Soviet first secretary Nikita Khrushchev zigzagged ineptly between policy options with apparently little or no analysis of costs and risks, permitting Moscow's Eastern European satellites at times to subtly manipulate the Kremlin's decision making. Granville's discussions of Polish policy, Yugoslav actions, and the arduous process of normalization after the uprising show that the Soviets were preoccupied with stemming what many of them construed as a Western-encouraged attempt to undermine Eastern Europe's communist regimes. Granville concludes that the United States bears some responsibility for the events of 1956, as ill-advised U.S. covert actions may have convinced the Soviet leaders that the United States was attempting to weaken Soviet hegemony over Eastern Europe, although the Eisenhower administration actually intended only to sow confusion and dissatisfaction. This masterful study leads to the conclusion that the Hungarian Crisis in 1956 was most likely sustained by self-perpetuating misperceptions and suspicions among key countries. In short, Granville's multi-archival research tends to confirm the post-revisionists' theory about the cold war: it was everyone's fault and no one's fault. It resulted from the emerging bipolar structure of the international system, the power vacuum in Europe's center, and spiraling misconceptions.

Hungary And The Ussr 1956 1988

Author: Andrew Felkay
Publisher: Greenwood Pub Group
Size: 16.94 MB
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Hungary And The Ussr 1956 1988. In this comprehensive analysis of Hungarian political and economic developments over the past 30 years, Felkay focuses on the role played by the country's long-tenured Communist leader Janos Kadar.

The 1956 Hungarian Revolution

Author: Csaba Békés
Publisher: Central European University Press
ISBN: 9789639241664
Size: 79.33 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The 1956 Hungarian Revolution. If there had been all-news television channels in 1956, viewers around the world would have been glued to their sets between October 23 and November 4. This book tells the story of the Hungarian Revolution in 120 original documents, ranging from the minutes of the first meeting of Khrushchev with Hungarian bosses after Stalin's death in 1953 to Yeltsin's declaration made in 1992. Other documents include letters from Yuri Andropov, Soviet Ambassador in Budapest during and after the revolt. The great majority of the material appears in English for the first time, and almost all come from archives that were inaccessible until the 1990s.

The Armenian Genocide

Author: Raymond Kevorkian
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857730207
Size: 61.61 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Armenian Genocide. The Armenian Genocide was one of the greatest atrocities of the twentieth century, an episode in which up to 1.5 million Armenians lost their lives. In this major new history, Raymond Kévorkian provides a long-awaited authoritative account of origins, events, and consequences of the years 1915 and 1916. Kévorkian explains and analyses the debates that occurred within the elite circles of the Young Turks, and traces the roots of the violence that would be raged upon the Ottoman Armenians. Uniquely, this is also a geographical account of the Armenian genocide, documenting its course region by region, including a complete account of the deportations, massacres and resistance that occurred. Kévorkian considers the role that the Armenian Genocide played in the construction of the Turkish nation state and Turkish identity, as well as exploring the ideologies of power, rule, and state violence, presenting an important contribution to the understanding of how such destruction could have occurred. Thus, Kévorkian examines the history of the Young Turks and the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire as they came into conflict with one another, taking into consideration the institutional, political, social and even psychological mechanisms that culminated in the destruction of the Ottoman Armenians. Beginning with an exploration of the origins of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, Kévorkian analyses the decision making process which led to the terrible fate of those who were deported to the concentration camps of Aleppo and along the Euphrates. Crucially, 'The Armenian Genocide' also examines the consequences of the violence against the Armenians, the implications of the expropriation of property and assets, and deportations, as well as the attempts to bring those who committed atrocities to justice. This covers the documents from the Mazhar Governmental Commission of Inquiry and the formation of courts martial by the Ottoman authorities, and the findings of the March 1920 Committee for the Protection of the Minorities in Turkey, created by the League of Nations. Kévorkian offers a detailed and meticulous account of the Armenian Genocide, providing an authoritative analysis of the events and their impact upon the Armenian community itself, as well as the development of the Turkish state. This important book will serve as an indispensable resource to historians of the period, as well as those wishing to understand the history of genocidal violence more generally.