Five Centuries Of Violence In Finland And The Baltic Area

Author: Heikki Ylikangas
Publisher: Ohio State University Press
ISBN: 9780814208601
Size: 55.52 MB
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Five Centuries Of Violence In Finland And The Baltic Area. Most Americans associate Nordic countries with peace, tranquility, civility, high living standards, and generally progressive social arrangements. It is these very qualities that get Nordic countries rejected as policy models because they are too peaceful -- what happens there is too remote and too easy compared to the harsh American world.The contents of this book should help reverse these opinions. Sweden and Finland were once quite violent, and even today their Baltic neighbor Estonia in some places has homicide rates that parallel those of America's cities. Lacking urban decay, even lacking cities of any size, early modern Finland had rural traditions of knife fighting and suffered aggressive male violence in ways as grimly predictable as in the late twentieth-century United States. In both Sweden and Finland, cities led the way to social pacification, becoming less violent before the countryside. Contemporary Estonia, however, has high rates of violence among its Russian population, ratesthat point,to enormous social gulfs in a country Americans would see as homogeneous and "white".These profoundly rural places in hard climates populated by peasant farmers and woodcutters, with tiny cities no larger than what we would call villages today, all had better record keeping than most contemporary nonindustrial nations. The contributors have drawn extensively on these records to address issues of policy and history. They make it clear that personal violence can lodge like a virus in many different host organisms; although American violence is a unique problem in some ways, it is not due to some peculiar set of conditions limited to America. From the historical point of view, we cansee how Finland's experience can give hope: how entrenched traditions of personal violence can change; how history, like circumstance, is not destiny.

Writing The History Of Crime

Author: Paul Knepper
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1472518551
Size: 52.47 MB
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Writing The History Of Crime. Writing the History of Crime investigates the development of historical writing on the subject of crime and its wider place in social and cultural history. It examines long-standing and emerging traditions in history writing, with separate chapters on legal and scientific approaches, as well as on urban, Marxist, gender and empire history. Each chapter then explores these historical approaches in relation to crime, paying particular attention to the relationship between theory and the interpretation of evidence. Rather than a timeline for the historical appearance of ideas about crime or a catalogue of the range of topics that comprise the subject matter, Writing the History of Crime reveals the ideas behind crime as a subject of historical investigation; it looks at how these ideas generate questions that may be asked about the past and the way in which these questions are answered. This is a crucial analysis for anyone interested in the history of crime, the historiography of social history or the art of history writing more broadly.

Women And Children As Victims And Offenders Background Prevention Reintegration

Author: Helmut Kury
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331928424X
Size: 36.80 MB
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Women And Children As Victims And Offenders Background Prevention Reintegration. This work compiles experiences and lessons learned in meeting the unique needs of women and children regarding crime prevention and criminal justice, in particular the treatment and social reintegration of offenders and serves as a cross-disciplinary work for academic and policy-making analyses and follow-up in developing and developed countries. Furthermore, it argues for a more humane and effective approach to countering delinquency and crime among future generations. In a world where development positively depends on the rule of law and the related investment security, two global trends may chart the course of development: urbanization and education. Urbanization will globalize the concepts of “justice” and “fairness”; education will be dominated by the urban mindset and digital service economy, just as a culture of lawfulness will. This work looks at crime prevention education as an investment in the sustainable quality of life of succeeding generations, and at those who pursue such crime prevention as the providers of much-needed skills in the educational portfolio. Adopting a reformist approach, this work collects articles with findings and recommendations that may be relevant to domestic and international policymaking, including the United Nations Studies and their educational value for the welfare of coming generations. The books address the relevant United Nations ideas by combining them with academic approaches. Guided by the Editors’ respective fields of expertise, and in full recognition of academic freedom and “organized scepticism”, it includes contributions by lawyers, criminologists, sociologists and other eminent experts seeking to bridge the gap between academic and policy perspectives, as appropriate, against the international background, including the United Nations developments.​ The second volume opens with Part IV, which presents articles on different kinds of crime prevention. The effectiveness of punishment and, in particular, imprisonment is examined by contrasting it with alternative sanctions and the following questions are raised: Does harsh punishment have a crime preventive effect? What are the side effects of imprisonment on the offenders and their families? Are alternatives, such as restorative justice or mediation, more effective and cheaper? Part V outlines proactive strategies of crime prevention, e.g. for potential sex offenders or in the domain of internet crime. Part VI envisions a more peaceful and inclusive society, which would be realized by improving the protection of women and children in their everyday life, and easing the reintegration of those who have become offenders. The importance of the role played by the UN in formulating these goals is underlined. The volume concludes with an epilogue of the 70th President of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, Martin Sajdik, and a post scriptum of the editors. p>

The Routledge Handbook Of European Criminology

Author: Sophie Body-Gendrot
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136185496
Size: 35.75 MB
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The Routledge Handbook Of European Criminology. This new book brings together some of the leading criminologists across Europe, to showcase the best of European criminology. This Handbook aims to reflect the range and depth of current work in Europe, and to counterbalance the impact of the – sometimes insular and ethnocentric – Anglo-American criminological tradition. The end-product is a collection of twenty-eight chapters illustrating a truly comparative and interdisciplinary European criminology. The editors have assembled a cast of leading voices to reflect on differences and commonalities, elaborate on theoretically grounded comparisons and reflect on emerging themes in criminology in Europe. After the editors’ introduction, the book is organised in three parts: five chapters offering historical, theoretical and policy oriented overviews of European issues in crime and crime control; seven chapters looking at different dimensions of crime in Europe, includingcrime trends, state crime, gender and crime and urban safety; fifteen chapters examining the variety of institutional responses, exploring issues such as policing, juvenile justice, punishment, green crime and the role of the victim. This book gives some indication of the richness and scope of the emerging comparative European criminology and will be required reading for anyone who wants to understand trends in crime and its control across Europe. It will also be a valuable teaching resource, especially at postgraduate level, as well as an important reference point for researchers and scholars of criminology across Europe.

Crime Law And Popular Culture In Europe 1500 1900

Author: Richard McMahon
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134007353
Size: 39.23 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Crime Law And Popular Culture In Europe 1500 1900. Exploring the relationship between crime, law and popular culture in Europe from the 16th century onwards, this title looks at how crime was understood and dealt with by ordinary people, as well as looking at to what degree official law and the criminal justice system was rejected as a means of dealing with criminal activity.

Politics Of The Sword

Author: Steven C. Hughes
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780814210727
Size: 57.37 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Politics Of The Sword. "Steven C. Hughes argues that this extraordinary increase in chivalric combat occurred because the duel played an important role in the formation, consolidation, and functioning of united Italy. The code of honor that lay at the heart of the dueling ethic offered a common model and bond of masculine identity for those patriotic elites who, having created a country of great variety and contrast for often contradictory motives, had to then deal with the consequences. Thus dueling became an iconic weapon of struggle during the Risorgimento, and, as Italy performed poorly on the stage of great power politics, it continued to offer images of martial valor and manly discipline. It also enhanced the social and political power of the new national elites, whose monopoly over chivalric honor helped reinforce the disenfranchisement of the masses.