Armenian Merchants Of The Seventeenth And Early Eighteenth Centuries

Author: Vahé Baladouni
Publisher: American Philosophical Society
ISBN: 9780871698858
Size: 32.68 MB
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Armenian Merchants Of The Seventeenth And Early Eighteenth Centuries. As an organic whole, the present collection of documents-gathered together from a variety of original sources-tells a fascinating story about the trade relationship between the English East India Company & the powerful Armenian merchant community of New Julfa that lasted over one hundred years (17th & early 18th centuries). Multifarious & complex, this relationship revolved around the Company's continual efforts to break into the Armenian held silk & cloth markets. Perhaps more than any other single event, this trade relationship epitomizes the economic climate of the period, an age of competitive partnership. With the publication of this volume, Professor Baladouni & Mrs. Makepeace place for the first time at the disposal of historians a substantive body of documents that tell how this intricate Anglo-Armenian trade relationship started & evolved. Beyond that, these documents also reveal to the astute historian the human experiences that lie behind the participants' actions. The extensive topical indexes provided in the volume will be of great assistance to researchers. Finally, in the Introduction, Professor Baladouni addresses the question "What was the key to the Armenian merchants' success during the pre-modern period?" & submits a hypothesis for consideration. He proposes that their "fabulous success" may be attributed to the rare atmosphere of trust that prevailed among the Armenian merchant community which, in turn, led to two significant benefits: (1) organizational cost savings; & (2) organizational innovations. A glossary of terms & several indexes complete the study.

Armenian Philology In The Modern Era

Author:
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004270965
Size: 43.58 MB
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Armenian Philology In The Modern Era. Armenian Philology in the Modern Era: From Manuscripts to the Digital Text provides an overview of the main achievements of philology when applied to Armenian sources and on the methodological approaches implemented in this field up to the present.

From The Indian Ocean To The Mediterranean

Author: Sebouh David Aslanian
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520282175
Size: 71.22 MB
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From The Indian Ocean To The Mediterranean. Drawing on a rich trove of documents, including correspondence not seen for 300 years, this study explores the emergence and growth of a remarkable global trade network operated by Armenian silk merchants from a small outpost in the Persian Empire. Based in New Julfa, Isfahan, in what is now Iran, these merchants operated a network of commercial settlements that stretched from London and Amsterdam to Manila and Acapulco. The New Julfan Armenians were the only Eurasian community that was able to operate simultaneously and successfully in all the major empires of the early modern world—both land-based Asian empires and the emerging sea-borne empires—astonishingly without the benefits of an imperial network and state that accompanied and facilitated European mercantile expansion during the same period. This book brings to light for the first time the trans-imperial cosmopolitan world of the New Julfans. Among other topics, it explores the effects of long distance trade on the organization of community life, the ethos of trust and cooperation that existed among merchants, and the importance of information networks and communication in the operation of early modern mercantile communities.

India And The Islamic Heartlands

Author: Gagan D. S. Sood
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107121272
Size: 55.24 MB
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India And The Islamic Heartlands. Gagan Sood recaptures a vanished and forgotten world that spanned India and the Islamic heartlands in the eighteenth century.

The Ashgate Research Companion To Byzantine Hagiography

Author: Stephanos Efthymiadis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317043952
Size: 15.95 MB
Format: PDF
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The Ashgate Research Companion To Byzantine Hagiography. For an entire millennium, Byzantine hagiography, inspired by the veneration of many saints, exhibited literary dynamism and a capacity to vary its basic forms. The subgenres into which it branched out after its remarkable start in the fourth century underwent alternating phases of development and decline that were intertwined with changes in the political, social and literary spheres. The selection of saintly heroes, an interest in depicting social landscapes, and the modulation of linguistic and stylistic registers captured the voice of homo byzantinus down to the end of the empire in the fifteenth century. The seventeen chapters in this companion form the sequel to those in volume I which dealt with the periods and regions of Byzantine hagiography, and complete the first comprehensive survey ever produced in this field. The book is the work of an international group of experts in the field and is addressed to both a broader public and the scholarly community of Byzantinists, medievalists, historians of religion and theorists of narrative. It highlights the literary dimension and the research potential of a representative number of texts, not only those appreciated by the Byzantines themselves but those which modern readers rank high due to their literary quality or historical relevance.

Merchants Companies And Trade

Author: Sushil Chaudhury
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521037471
Size: 10.66 MB
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Merchants Companies And Trade. Written by well-known scholars, this book raises pertinent questions and takes up alternate perspectives on the growth and development of international trade between Europe and Asia, especially India, in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. Through a comparative and comprehensive study of merchant communities, markets and commodities the individual authors argue, contrary to conventional views, that Asian merchants were in no way inferior to Europeans in terms of their commercial operations and business acumen. The book emphasizes the continuing and growing importance of India's overland trade, even in the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries, traces the little-known world of Armenian merchants, the hitherto obscure, but voluminous, Indian trade with the Ottoman Empire, and by unearthing new evidence, demonstrates that the export activity of Asian merchants through the overland route from Bengal was higher, in fact, than the combined total of European exports.

Britain And The Islamic World 1558 1713

Author: Gerald MacLean
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191619906
Size: 40.24 MB
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Britain And The Islamic World 1558 1713. Before they had an empire in the East, the British travelled into the Islamic world to pursue trade and to form strategic alliances against the Catholic powers of France and Spain. First-hand encounters with Muslims, Jews, Greek Orthodox, and other religious communities living together under tolerant Islamic rule changed forever the way Britons thought about Islam, just as the goods they imported from Islamic countries changed forever the way they lived. Britain and the Islamic World tells the story of how, for a century and a half, merchants and diplomats travelled from Morocco to Istanbul, from Aleppo to Isfahan, and from Hormuz to Surat, and discovered a world that was more fascinating than fearful. Gerald MacLean and Nabil Matar examine the place of Islam and Muslims in English thought, and how British monarchs dealt with supremely powerful Muslim rulers. They document the importance of diplomatic and mercantile encounters, show how the writings of captives spread unreliable information about Islam and Muslims, and investigate observations by travellers and clergymen who reported meetings with Jews, eastern Christians, Armenians, and Shi'ites. They also trace how trade and the exchange of material goods with the Islamic world shaped how people in Britain lived their lives and thought about themselves.

Metalwork And Material Culture In The Islamic World

Author: Venetia Porter
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857721887
Size: 49.25 MB
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Metalwork And Material Culture In The Islamic World. The material and visual culture of the Islamic World casts vast arcs through space and time, and encompasses a huge range of artefacts and monuments from the minute to the grandiose, from ceramic pots to the great mosques. Here, Venetia Porter and Mariam Rosser-Owen assemble leading experts in the field to examine both the objects themselves and the ways in which they reflect their historical, cultural and economic contexts._x000D_ _x000D_ Islamic metalwork is the particular focus of this book, which celebrates the fundamental contribution to its study made by James Allan. It includes an important new study of Mosul_x000D_ metalwork and presents recent discoveries in the fields of Fatimid, Mamluk and Qajar metalwork. Reflecting the inter-disciplinary spirit of this book, chapters explore the role of painting in the design of Islamic metalwork, issues of influence between Iran and India, and the importance of textual sources for our understanding of metalworking and the trade in raw materials._x000D_ _x000D_ Metalwork and Material Culture in the Islamic World also investigates cases from the Islamic West, and the spread of different artistic styles and influences across the Islamic World and beyond. By examining architecture, ceramics, ivories and textiles, seventeenth-century Iranian painting and contemporary art, the book explores a wide range of artistic production and historical periods from the Umayyad caliphate to the modern Middle East. This rich and detailed volume makes a significant contribution to the fields of Art History, Architecture and Islamic Studies, bringing new objects to light, and shedding new light on old objects.

Historical Dictionary Of Armenia

Author: Rouben Paul Adalian
Publisher: Scarecrow Press
ISBN: 9780810874503
Size: 60.21 MB
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Historical Dictionary Of Armenia. There are two Armenias: the current Republic of Armenia and historic Armenia. The modern state dates from the early 20th century. Historic Armenia was part of the ancient world and expired in the Middle Ages. Its people, however, survived, and from its residue recreated a new country. The history of the Armenians is the story of how an ancient people endured into modern times and how its culture evolved from one conceived under the influence of Mesopotamia to one redefined by the civilization of Europe. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Armenia relates the turbulent past of this persistent country through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 200 cross-referenced dictionary entries on significant persons, events, places, organizations, and other aspects of Armenian history from the earliest times to the present.