Elements Of The Natural Movement Of Population

Author: Egon Vielrose
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 148319535X
Size: 46.87 MB
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Elements Of The Natural Movement Of Population. Elements of the Natural Movement of Population deals with the study of statistical and demographic problems. The book contains chapters that explain the nature and quality of statistical sources, the degree of their reliability and the results that may be expected; the structure of population by sex, age and marital status; and the three main elements of the natural movement of population: marriages (and divorces), births, and deaths. Demographers, statisticians, sociologists, researchers, and students will find the book very insightful.

Trace Elements

Author: B. Markert
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080543130
Size: 51.52 MB
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Trace Elements. This volume discusses major areas of primary concern for the understanding of the complexity associated with ecological trace element research. These include sources and fates of trace elements; analytical techniques; and the distribution of trace elements in biota and soil and sediment reservoirs. Case studies, field work and laboratory studies intensively discussed in this volume are useful to enhance our knowledge about processes related to the biological response of trace metal stress under realistic environmental conditions.

The Natural Origins Of Economics

Author: Margaret Schabas
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226735719
Size: 15.59 MB
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The Natural Origins Of Economics. References to the economy are ubiquitous in modern life, and virtually every facet of human activity has capitulated to market mechanisms. In the early modern period, however, there was no common perception of the economy, and discourses on money, trade, and commerce treated economic phenomena as properties of physical nature. Only in the early nineteenth century did economists begin to posit and identify the economy as a distinct object, divorcing it from natural processes and attaching it exclusively to human laws and agency. In The Natural Origins of Economics, Margaret Schabas traces the emergence and transformation of economics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries from a natural to a social science. Focusing on the works of several prominent economists—David Hume, Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, and John Stuart Mill—Schabas examines their conceptual debt to natural science and thus locates the evolution of economic ideas within the history of science. An ambitious study, The Natural Origins of Economics will be of interest to economists, historians, and philosophers alike.

A Tale Of Seven Elements

Author: Eric Scerri
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0195391314
Size: 71.86 MB
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A Tale Of Seven Elements. In A Tale of Seven Elements, Eric Scerri presents the fascinating history of those seven elements discovered to be mysteriously "missing" from the periodic table in 1913.

The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226458148
Size: 36.18 MB
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The Structure Of Scientific Revolutions. A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Elements Of Evolutionary Genetics

Author: Brian Charlesworth
Publisher: Roberts Publishers
ISBN:
Size: 78.19 MB
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Elements Of Evolutionary Genetics. Evolutionary genetics considers the causes of evolutionary change and the nature of variability in evolution. The methods of evolutionary genetics are critically important for the analysis and interpretation of the massive datasets on DNA sequence variation and evolution that are becoming available, as well for our understanding of evolution in general. This book shows readers how models of the genetic processes involved in evolution are made (including natural selection, migration, mutation, and genetic drift in finite populations), and how the models are used to interpret classical and molecular genetic data. The material is intended for advanced level undergraduate courses in genetics and evolutionary biology, graduate students in evolutionary biology and human genetics, and researchers in related fields who wish to learn evolutionary genetics. The topics covered include genetic variation, DNA sequence variability and its measurement, the different types of natural selection and their effects (e.g. the maintenance of variation, directional selection, and adaptation), the interactions between selection and mutation or migration, the description and analysis of variation at multiple sites in the genome, genetic drift, and the effects of spatial structure. The final two chapters demonstrate how the theory illuminates our understanding of the evolution of breeding systems, sex ratios and life histories, and some aspects of genome evolution.

Natural And Artificial Intelligence

Author: A. de Callataÿ
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483297810
Size: 42.18 MB
Format: PDF
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Natural And Artificial Intelligence. How does the mind work? How is data stored in the brain? How does the mental world connect with the physical world? The hybrid system developed in this book shows a radically new view on the brain. Briefly, in this model memory remains permanent by changing the homeostasis rebuilding the neuronal organelles. These transformations are approximately abstracted as all-or-none operations. Thus the computer-like neural systems become plausible biological models. This illustrated book shows how artificial animals with such brains learn invariant methods of behavior control from their repeated actions. These robots can make decisions in any circumstances and reason by analogy whenever possible. This new and expanded edition includes a prologue exploring the problems which have stopped the development of fully fledged brain models. The causes of these deadlocks are listed as potential misconceptions about brain principles, neural networks, nervous systems, robotics, programming and decision logic.