The Problems Of Philosophy

Author: Bertrand Russell
Publisher: 谷月社
ISBN:
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The Problems Of Philosophy. Is there any knowledge in the world which is so certain that no reasonable man could doubt it? This question, which at first sight might not seem difficult, is really one of the most difficult that can be asked. When we have realized the obstacles in the way of a straightforward and confident answer, we shall be well launched on the study of philosophy—for philosophy is merely the attempt to answer such ultimate questions, not carelessly and dogmatically, as we do in ordinary life and even in the sciences, but critically, after exploring all that makes such questions puzzling, and after realizing all the vagueness and confusion that underlie our ordinary ideas. In daily life, we assume as certain many things which, on a closer scrutiny, are found to be so full of apparent contradictions that only a great amount of thought enables us to know what it is that we really may believe. In the search for certainty, it is natural to begin with our present experiences, and in some sense, no doubt, knowledge is to be derived from them. But any statement as to what it is that our immediate experiences make us know is very likely to be wrong. It seems to me that I am now sitting in a chair, at a table of a certain shape, on which I see sheets of paper with writing or print. By turning my head I see out of the window buildings and clouds and the sun. I believe that the sun is about ninety-three million miles from the earth; that it is a hot globe many times bigger than the earth; that, owing to the earth's rotation, it rises every morning, and will continue to do so for an indefinite time in the future. I believe that, if any other normal person comes into my room, he will see the same chairs and tables and books and papers as I see, and that the table which I see is the same as the table which I feel pressing against my arm. All this seems to be so evident as to be hardly worth stating, except in answer to a man who doubts whether I know anything. Yet all this may be reasonably doubted, and all of it requires much careful discussion before we can be sure that we have stated it in a form that is wholly true....

The Problems Of Philosophy

Author: Bertrand Russell
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 048612116X
Size: 21.83 MB
Format: PDF
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The Problems Of Philosophy. Accessible, thought-provoking study by Nobel Prize-winner considers distinction between appearance and reality, existence and nature of matter, idealism, inductive logic, intuitive knowledge, many other stimulating subjects.

The Problems Of Philosophy

Author: Bertrand Russell
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781541028647
Size: 59.35 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The Problems Of Philosophy. The Problems of Philosophy is a 1912 book by Bertrand Russell, in which Russell attempts to create a brief and accessible guide to the problems of philosophy. Focusing on problems he believes will provoke positive and constructive discussion, Russell concentrates on knowledge rather than metaphysics: If it is uncertain that external objects exist, how can we then have knowledge of them but by probability. There is no reason to doubt the existence of external objects simply because of sense data. About Russell: Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell(18 May 1872 - 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist and Nobel laureate. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had "never been any of these things, in any profound sense". He was born in Monmouthshire into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in the United Kingdom.

Basic Questions Of Philosophy

Author: Martin Heidegger
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 9780253004383
Size: 62.38 MB
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Basic Questions Of Philosophy. "... well suited to the task of beckoning the novice onto the path of Heidegger's most arduous thought.... a useful introduction to the thought of one of our most original thinkers." -- International Studies in Philosophy "... a helpful elucidation of the truth as [Heidegger] sees it.... This excellent translation will be of great value to students of Heidegger's thought." -- Library Journal In this lecture course presented in 1937-38, Heidegger's task is to reassert the question of the essence of truth, not as a problem of logic, but precisely as the basic question of philosophy. These lectures were given at the time that Heidegger was composing his second magnum opus, Beiträge zur Philosophie, and provide the single best introduction to that complex and crucial text.

Some Problems Of Philosophy

Author: William James
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674820357
Size: 72.11 MB
Format: PDF
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Some Problems Of Philosophy. Some Problems of Philosophy, William James's last book, was published after his death in 1910. For years he had talked of rounding out his philosophical work with a treatise on metaphysics. Characteristically, he chose to do so in the form of an introduction to the problems of philosophy, because writing for beginners would force him to be nontechnical and readable. The result is that, although this is James's most systematic and abstract work, it has all the lucidity of his other, more popular writings. Step by step the reader is introduced, through analysis of the fundamental problems of Being, the relation of thoughts to things, novelty, causation, and the Infinite, to the original philosophical synthesis that James called radical empiricism. This is the seventh volume to be published in The Works of William James, an authoritative edition sponsored by the American Council of Learned Societies.

Utopias Dolphins And Computers

Author: Mary Midgley
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0415133785
Size: 32.89 MB
Format: PDF
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Utopias Dolphins And Computers. Why do the big philosophical questions so often strike us as far-fetched and little to with everyday life? Mary Midgley shows that it need not be that way; she shows that there is a need for philosophy in the real world. Her popularity as one of our foremost philosophers is based on a no-nonsense, down-to-earth approach to fundamental human problems, philosphical or otherwise. In Utopias, Dolphins and Computers she makes her case for philosophy as a difficult but necessary tool for solving some of the most pressing issues facing contemporary society. How should we treat animals? Why are we so confused about the value of education? What is at stake in feminism? Why should we sustain our environment? Why do we think intelligent computers will save us? Mary Midgley argues that philosophy not only can, but should be used in thinking about these questions. Utopias, Dolphins and Computers will make fascinating reading for philosophers, educationalists, feminists, environmentalists and indeed anyone interested in the questions of philosophy, ethics and life.