War Is Not Inevitable

Author: Henri Parens
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739195298
Size: 43.18 MB
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War Is Not Inevitable. In 1932 Einstein asked Freud, ‘Is there any way of delivering mankind from the menace of war?’ Freud answered that war is inevitable because humans have an instinct to self-destroy, a death instinct which we must externalize to survive. But nearly four decades of study of aggression reveal that rather than being an inborn drive, destructiveness is generated in us by experiences of excessive psychic pain. In War is Not Inevitable: On the Psychology of War and Aggression, Henri Parens argues that the death-instinct based model of aggression can neither be proved nor disproved as Freud’s answer is untestable. By contrast, the ‘multi-trends theory of aggression’ is provable and has greater heuristic value than does a death-instinct based model of aggression. When we look for causes for war we turn to history as well as national, ethnic, territorial, and or political issues, among many others, but we also tend to ignore the psychological factors that play a large role. Parens discusses such psychological factors that seem to lead large groups into conflict. Central among these are the psychodynamics of large-group narcissism. Interactional conditions stand out: hyper-narcissistic large-groups have, in history, caused much narcissistic injury to those they believe they are superior to. But this is commonly followed by the narcissistically injured group’s experiencing high level hostile destructiveness toward their injury-perpetrator which, in time, will compel them to revenge. Among groups that have been engaged in serial conflicts, wars have followed from this psychodynamic narcissism-based cyclicity. Parens details some of the psychodynamics that led from World War I to World War II and their respective aftermath, and he addresses how major factors that gave rise to these wars must, can, and have been counteracted. In doing so, Parens considers strategies by which civilization has and is constructively preventing wars, as well as the need for further innovative efforts to achieve that end.

The Lost History Of 1914

Author: Jack Beatty
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 1408827964
Size: 53.90 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Lost History Of 1914. Anticipating the centenary of World War I, a brilliant new history of the year it began--"a year forever memorable" (Woodrow Wilson)--that examines the war and its causes through new eyes.

The Pacific War And Contingent Victory

Author: Michael W. Myers
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780700620876
Size: 17.27 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Pacific War And Contingent Victory. In this outstanding, immensely useful, and much-needed study, Michael Myers makes a significant contribution to widening our horizon by challenging the blinding assumption that Japan's defeat was inevitable. Of critical value is his analysis of Japanese army and naval strategy, underscoring the difficulty of infusing U.S. military might into the existing balance of forces in 1942-43, as American industry moved toward maximum capacity production and the war in Europe diverted valuable men and materials away from the Pacific.

The End Of War

Author: John Horgan
Publisher: McSweeney's
ISBN: 1938073045
Size: 10.10 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The End Of War. War is a fact of human nature. As long as we exist, it exists. That's how the argument goes. But longtime Scientific American writer John Horgan disagrees. Applying the scientific method to war leads Horgan to a radical conclusion: biologically speaking, we are just as likely to be peaceful as violent. War is not preordained, and furthermore, it should be thought of as a solvable, scientific problem—like curing cancer. But war and cancer differ in at least one crucial way: whereas cancer is a stubborn aspect of nature, war is our creation. It’s our choice whether to unmake it or not. In this compact, methodical treatise, Horgan examines dozens of examples and counterexamples—discussing chimpanzees and bonobos, warring and peaceful indigenous people, the World War I and Vietnam, Margaret Mead and General Sherman—as he finds his way to war’s complicated origins. Horgan argues for a far-reaching paradigm shift with profound implications for policy students, ethicists, military men and women, teachers, philosophers, or really, any engaged citizen.

Destined For War

Author: Graham Allison
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 0544935330
Size: 13.77 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Destined For War. CHINA AND THE UNITED STATES ARE HEADING TOWARD A WAR NEITHER WANTS. The reason is Thucydides’s Trap, a deadly pattern of structural stress that results when a rising power challenges a ruling one. This phenomenon is as old as history itself. About the Peloponnesian War that devastated ancient Greece, the historian Thucydides explained: “It was the rise of Athens and the fear that this instilled in Sparta that made war inevitable.” Over the past 500 years, these conditions have occurred sixteen times. War broke out in twelve of them. Today, as an unstoppable China approaches an immovable America and both Xi Jinping and Donald Trump promise to make their countries “great again,” the seventeenth case looks grim. Unless China is willing to scale back its ambitions or Washington can accept becoming number two in the Pacific, a trade conflict, cyberattack, or accident at sea could soon escalate into all-out war. In Destined for War, the eminent Harvard scholar Graham Allison explains why Thucydides’s Trap is the best lens for understanding U.S.-China relations in the twenty-first century. Through uncanny historical parallels and war scenarios, he shows how close we are to the unthinkable. Yet, stressing that war is not inevitable, Allison also reveals how clashing powers have kept the peace in the past — and what painful steps the United States and China must take to avoid disaster today.

Imponderable But Not Inevitable

Author: Malcolm H. Murfett
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313378827
Size: 16.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Imponderable But Not Inevitable. This book fills an important gap in the literature of modern warfare by focusing on random elements in warfare often overlooked in both the planning and execution of military operations—factors that can turn certain success into devastating failure. * Includes the work of eight distinguished contributors, each an expert in military history * Offers a bibliography of print and online resources for further reading

War Before Civilization

Author: Lawrence H. Keeley
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 9780195119121
Size: 48.96 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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War Before Civilization. Offering a devastating rebuttal to the comfortable myth that prehistoric warfare was rare, harmless, and unimportant, Lawrence H. Keeley's groundbreaking "War Before Civilization" debunks the notion that warfare was introduced to primitive societies through contact with civilization. 16 illustrations.